A file is a special kind of object that includes an implicit asset field, which is a reference to a file asset document. This is useful for storing any kind of non-image files (pdf, mpeg, docx etc).


You really shouldn't use the file type for images. Use image instead. Images uploaded as files will not have the associated metadata for images and you won't be able to scale and crop them in the image pipeline.


  • typestring

    Required. Value must be set to file.

  • fieldsarray

    An array of optional fields to add to the file field. The fields added here follow the same pattern as fields defined on objects. This is useful for allowing users to add custom metadata related to the usage of this file (see example below).



Learn more about validation


  title: 'Manuscript',
  name: 'manuscript',
  type: 'file',
  fields: [
      name: 'description',
      type: 'string',
      title: 'Description'
      name: 'author',
      type: 'reference',
      title: 'Author',
      to: {type: 'person'}


  "_type": "file",
  "asset": {
    "_type": "reference",
    "_ref": "file-5igDD9UuXffIucwZpyVthr0c"
  "description": "First draft",
  "author": {
    "_type": "reference",
    "_ref": "1osKfX-49GLPg-2EeuOe-3ufEFE"

Download file

In order to download a file from your front-end you need to append ?dl=<filename-of-your-choice.pdf> to the file URL. If you leave the filename blank, the original filename will be used if present. If the original filename is not available, the id of the file will be used instead.

// GROQ query
*[_type == 'movie'] {
  "manuscriptURL": manuscript.asset->url

// Then you can use the URL in HTML for example like this:
// <a href={`${manuscriptURL}?dl=`>Manuscript</a>

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